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《 逛・聚落 》

臺東生活即美學,藝文能量匯聚;孕育優質創作。

// MUSEUM IN TAITUNG /


蘭恩文化園區的戶外傳統建築展示區,展示達悟族的家屋樣式,一般又稱為半穴居或地下屋;通常由主屋、工作房及涼台三個部分所組成,住屋的一半在地下,構造上牆面以石頭為主,屋頂以木構造支撐,屋面則以茅草為主。地下屋在蘭嶼是一種具有獨特功能的房屋結構,房子蓋在地底下不僅可以抵擋颱風,也不怕東北季風的侵擾,甚至冬天還十分保暖,同時扮演著文化連結的角色。

The Lanyu Cultural Park also includes an outdoor area that displays traditional Tao houses. The houses are partly dug in and typically consist of three parts: main house, workshop, and verandah. The walls are made of stone, while the thatched roofs have a wooden structure. The semi-sunken design makes the houses more resistant to summer typhoons and northerly monsoons, and keeps them warm in winter. The outdoor area also has a Flying Fish Theater for performance and traditional dances such as the warrior dance and hair dance.


臺灣原住民族中唯一的海洋民族
The rise of Japanese-style official residences along Taitung’s streets

達悟族,在蘭嶼島上分為六個村落,分別是椰油、漁人、紅頭、野銀、東清及朗島,是臺灣唯一的海洋民族,他們製造拼板舟於海上航行並捕獵漁獲,主要的祭祀儀式大多配合捕撈飛魚相關活動為主。捕魚是男人的工作,女人主要以農作為主,種植的作物包括小米及芋頭等,以分工合作方式從事經濟活動。達悟族的主食是芋頭、番薯及小米等,副食則以魚類為主,獵捕的魚種區分為「春天魚」及「底棲魚」。春天魚主要是洄游性魚類飛魚、鬼頭刀,其中乘著黑潮而來的飛魚,是達悟族人心中神聖的魚種,他們相信其來自天界;底棲魚則是在其他季節捕的礁岩魚種為主。另外,也將魚分為「好魚」、「壞魚」及「老人魚」,好魚大家都可以吃,壞魚只有男人可以吃,老人魚則是僅年長男人可吃,所以在捕獲好魚時,會優先讓女人先吃。這樣的區分,展現出達悟祖先的生活智慧,讓不同魚種得以休養生息,不過度捕撈單一魚種,是崇敬自然永續的漁獵方式。
The Tao live in six villages around the island called Yeyou, Yuren, Hongtou, Yeyin, Dongqing, and Langdao. A seafaring people, the Tao are known for their tatala boats, made from wooden boards joined together with wooden dowels. Their patriarchal society is organized by fishery groups, whose main rituals are related to fishing and flying fish. Typically, the men go fishing while the women tend to the farms, where they grow millet and taro as their main crops. Besides fishery groups, there are house-building groups and irrigation groups, which divide labor and streamline economic activity. The staple foods of the Tao tribe are taro, sweet potato and millet, supplemented with fish. The Tao divide fish into “springtime fish” (among no rayon) and “lower fish” (among no karawangan). Springtime fish are migratory fish like flying fish and common dolphinfish. The flying fish come in with the Kurushio (black tide), jumping high and far out of the ocean waves, and they are sacred fish to the Tao people, who believe them have originated from heaven. The lower fish, caught in the other seasons, are fish that live closer to the coastal reefs. In addition, they also divide fish into wuyod (good fish), raet (bad fish), and kanen no raraker (old people’s fish). Good fish can be eaten by everyone, while the bad fish can only be had by men. Old people’s fish is only consumed by elderly men. So, good fish will generally first be eaten by the women. This taxonomy of fish reflects the life wisdom of the Tao ancestors, allowing different fish species population to rest and recover, and preventing overfishing and respecting nature’s limits.